publicationISIS Books Published from 1990-1995

 


THE EMERGING REGIONAL SECURITY ARCHITECTURE IN THE ASIA PACIFIC REGION (8TH APR)
Edited by Bunn Nagara & Cheah Siew Ean
449 pp 1995 RM 35.00 ISBN 967947-219-1

The Eighth Asia Pacific Roundtable addressed issues such as future security in the Asia Pacific, the strengthening of regional security regimes, the future of the Asean Regional Forum and Cscap in the emerging regional security architecture, as well as past and present Asian conflicts, non-conventional threats such as narcotics, labour migration and HIV/Aids to security in the region and the role of major powers in enhancing regional security. Issues discussed for the first time at the Roundtable included narcotics and migration, as well as domestic problems in Canada, the US and Mexico, the latter a departure from the exclusive focus on the Western Pacific Rim which had characterised all previous roundtables.

ATMOSFERA YANG BERUBAH
By John Firor
159 pp 1995 RM15.00/US$7.50 ISBN 967-947-203-5

Kita kini sedang berada di ambang perubahan besar atmosfera dunia. Kita menghadapi cabaran yang serius daripada hujan asid, penipisan ozon, dan pemanasan iklim. Sungguhpun kejadian semula jadi banyak mempengaruhi perubahan di atmosfera, namun sejak dekad kebelakangan ini, masalah ini banyak disebabkan oleh pencemaran yang dihasilkan oleh aktiviti manusia. Dalam buku ini, John Firor, seorang pakar dalam kajian atmosfera teiah membincangkan sebab-sebab terjadinya hujan asid, penipisan ozon dan pemanasan ikiim - serta bukti-bukti yang menunjukkan bahawa masalahnya sekarang menjadi semakin parah. Beliau juga mengemukakan banyak cadangan untuk mengawal masalah ini dan bagaimana mengatasi kemusnahan atmosfera dalam bentuk-bentuk lain. Dengan cara yang mudah dan jelas, John Firor membincangkan bagaimana pelepasan bahan sulfur dan nitrogen ke udara boleh mengakibatkan hujan asid, bagaimana pelepasan gas-gas yang mengandungi kiorin ke udara mengakibatkan kemusnahan ozon di atmosfera atas, dan bagaimana kehadiran gas pemerangkap infra-merah di atmosfera boleh menyebabkan kita kehilangan radiasi infra-merah di bumi yang akan mengakibatkan pemanasan iklim. Dalam buku ini, Firor menjelaskan bahawa fakta asas kepada ekologi sejagat ialah hakikat bahawa ketiga-tiga masalah ini wujud dalam bentuk yang berhubungkait antara satu sama lain. Beliau menghuraikan mengapa ketiga-tiga masaiah ini tidak boleh dilihat secara berasingan dan apa yang boleh kita lakukan untuk mengatasinya.

MANAGING INDUSTRIAL TRANSITION IN MALAYSIA
Edited by Vijayakumari Kanapathy
164 pp 1995 RM34.00/US$17.50 ISBN 967-947-200-0

This book consists of seven select papers presented at the seminar 'Managing Industrial Transition in Malaysia: Policies for the 1990s and Beyond'. The seminar brought together some of the key architects of Malaysia's industrial policy to:

  • Review and assess, critically, the adequacy and relevance of policies, strategies and programmes to facilitate and hasten industrial transition
  • Draw lessons from the industrialised economies, in particular the Asian Newly Industrialising Economies, in the area of human resource development and technology policies; and
  • Examine the constraints to policy revision, formulation and implementation.

MANAGING TRUST
Transparency, Accountability & Ethics in Malaysia
Edited by Patrick Pillai, Azreen Pharmy, Karen Neoh and Kim Thiruchelvam
175 pp 1995 RM15.00/US$7.50 ISBN 967-947-203-5

How best can we create a more ethical and moral society? One approach is to ensure that executives in both the public and private sectors manage the trust bestowed on them by practising the concept of transparency and accountability more effectively. This book examines the practice of the concept in Malaysia and what can -- and cannot -- be learned from the European, specifically the German, experience. It should interest public sector officials, especially those from the financial, regulatory, law enforcement, and privatised agencies, and private sector executives, especially those from the banking and securities industry, and from the corporate planning, human resources, public affairs and environmental divisions of corporations. This book should also prove useful to students of public administration, law, business administration, and of course the layman -- the tax-payer, citizen, employee or consumer -- who entrusts others with his welfare and well-being.

ASIA-PACIFIC 2000
Challenges and Choices Facing Employers
By Noordin Sopiee, Patrick Pillai and Kim Thiruchelvam
14 pp 1995 RM2.50/US$1.50 ISBN 967-947-046-6

This book focuses on four key trends affecting employers in the Asia-Pacific region, especially in the developing nations. Under market revolution, issues discussed include, a new balance between the State and the market, the diminished role of the State, increasing market reliance and coping with new environmental, health and consumer concerns. Under technology revolution, the key challenge is for employers to integrate technology into their production, management and information systems. Under globalisation, there are the issues of cross-country labour mobility and the use of labour standards and economic protectionism. Finally, economic and gender disparities are discussed under economic deprivation and inequality.

JAPANESE EXPERIENCE AND NATION-BUILDING IN ASIA
By Najmul Saqib Khan
10 pp 1995 RM4.00/US$2.00 ISBN 967-947-210-8

Japan constitutes only 0.3% of the world area, and about 3% of its population but yet accounts for 15% of the world's Gross National Product (GNP). One of the major lessons from the Japanese experience according to the author is that modernisation does not necessarily equate with westernisation. Japan has managed to assimilate new technologies, and economic and market strategies from the West without eliminating or sacrificing their non-economic factors, attitudes, values, behaviour and the mindset. The author summarises the lessons that Asia can learn from the Japanese experience, e.g. the will to change, mass education, land reforms and adoption and adaptation of Western technology.

MANAGING INNOVATION IN JAPANESE COMPANIES: LESSONS FOR MALAYSIA
By Ong Fon Sim and Mohd Nor Othman
69 pp 1995 RM11.00/US$5.50 ISBN 967-947-204-3

The purpose of this study is to examine innovation management in Japanese companies by using case studies, and to suggest lessons that Malaysia can learn with regard to upgrading its technology through effective Research and Development (R&D) management. The five companies under study are Kao Corporation, Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd., Matsushita Air-conditioning Group of Companies, Ajinomoto Co., Inc. and Toshiba Corporation. Through the lessons drawn from the case studies, the authors formulate recommendations for both the government and the private sectors which include the review of the education system, support for small and medium enterprises, investment in research and commitment to R&D.

DOMESTIC VARIABLES OF JAPAN'S COMMITMENT IN SOUTHEAST ASIA
By Paridah Abd Samad
64 pp 1995 RM11.00/US$5.50 ISBN 967-947-205-1

The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the significance of the domestic variables in Japan's political system to the direction of Japan's foreign policy towards Southeast Asia. Japan's internal variables have a significant influence in the formulation of Japanese foreign policy. Three domestic variants which are significant are the political parties, the bureaucrats and the interest groups (business community). Although these three actors play important roles in the process of decision-making in Japan, there is a great deal of variety and difference among them, which creates intense cleavages, making Japanese diplomacy largely characterised by divisive politics. The study also provides recommendations for the promotion of mutual understanding between Japan and the countries of the region, and redefines Japan's regional role.

ATTRACTING JAPANESE TOURISTS AND ENHANCING THEIR IMPACT ON MALAYSIA
By Khoo Hock Aun
39 pp 1994 RM10.00/US$5.50 ISBN 967-947-181-0

This Japan Research Series paper, part of the Center for Japan Studies at ISIS Malaysia publication programme, describes and analyses Japanese tourist travel to Malaysia. The author is the Deputy Executive Director of the Asean Tourism Information Centre.

THE MAKING OF A SECURITY COMMUNITY IN THE ASIA PACIFIC (7TH APR)
Edited by Bunn Nagara & K S Balakrishnan
350 pp 1994 RM 30.00 ISBN 967947-192-6

This seventh in the Asia Pacific Roundtable series covered new ground in venturing into areas not usually related to defence matters. This included the economic dimension, so hard to ignore in the East Asian context and also the question of human rights. Papers were presented on concepts of security, the security impact and implications of economic development, current trends in regional security, armaments-building and confidence-building, alternative processes to peace, SLOCs and maritime security, a nuclear weapons-free zone in Southeast Asia and the possibilities and perspectives of Korean reunification.

ECONOMIC INTEGRATION AND ECONOMIC COOPERATION IN PACIFIC ASIA
By Noordin Sopiee
20 pp 1994 RM8.00/US$4.00 ISBN 967-947-186-1

This East Asian Centre for Economic Cooperation Opinion Paper was presented at the Kyushu University International Symposium 1993. It is linked to the 1993-95 project on Asian Economic Dynamism and The New Asia Pacific Economic Order supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture of Japan.

SOCIAL SECURITY IN MALAYSIA AND SINGAPORE
Practices, Issues and Reform Directions
By Mukul G Asher
86 pp 1994 RM15.00/US$7.50 ISBN 967-947-180-2

This book aims firstly to provide an analytical description of the social security systems and their probable effects in Malaysia and Singapore and secondly, to identify major issues facing the social security systems, and suggest possible ways of addressing them. As few quantitative studies of social security issues in the two countries are available, the discussion in this book is largely qualitative and deductive. This study should be treated as essentially exploratory in nature, and suggestions for reforms should be regarded as areas requiring further investigation.

INDUSTRIAL TRAINING IN MALAYSIA
Challenge and Response
Edited by Patrick Pillai
209 pp 1994 RM30.00/US$15.00 ISBN 967-947-185-3

This book discusses the challenge of educating, training and developing manpower for Malaysia's growing industrial needs, and the public and private sector's role and responsibility in meeting that challenge. It provides an overview of the industrial training system in Malaysia and an insight into the role played by various public agencies and those in the private sector. It ends with some observations on the experiences of other countries. This book will be of interest to policy-planners, decision-makers, educationists, human resource development practitioners and local and foreign investors.

SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT UNDER RAPID INDUSTRIALISATION
Edited by Susan Chong and Cho Kah Sin
1994 298 pp RM30.00/US$15.00 ISBN 967-947-177-2

How are the societies in rapidly industrialising Southeast Asia managing the social impact of industrialisation? This is the theme of this book which contains papers delivered during the First Southeast Asia Roundtable on Social Development, which was held in Kuala Lumpur in January, 1992, and was attended by representatives from Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, Indonesia, Hong Kong, The Philippines, Vietnam, and the ILO. The areas covered by the papers include:

  • Demographic developments, family change and social development
  • Supporting working parents
  • Anticipating the needs of the aging among the population
  • Helping rural migrants adapt to the cities
  • Integrating disabled persons into society; and
  • Promoting voluntary efforts in meeting community needs

GENERATING A NATIONAL SAVINGS MOVEMENT
Edited by Al'Alim Ibrahim
1994 321pp RM40.00/US$20.00 (sc) RM50.00/US$25.00 (hc) ISBN 967-947-196-9

The First Malaysian National Savings Conference, which was very comprehensive, covered the theoretical framework relating savings to national growth and development. It also covered issues relating to social security, which have emerged with the sustained economic growth and development of the nation, and which in turn have created higher expectations and placed a greater demand on the national social security system. In trying to meet these expectations, the social security and national provident fund systems are under pressure to ensure reasonable yields or returns on investments, while ensuring the safety of the capital sums invested. In trying to address all these issues, the conference has raised a large agenda for further research by economists and social scientists. This book contains the key papers presented at the conference as well as a summary of the workshop proceedings.

MALAYSIAN ECONOMY:Selected Issues and Policy Directions
Edited by Vijayakumari Kanapathy and Ismail Muhd Salleh
1994 370pp RM40.00/US$20.00 ISBN967-947-169-1

This publication on the Malaysian economy is a compilation of individual papers prepared for various fora or based on research projects undertaken by ISIS. These are largely policy-oriented papers that look into the various elements of this new strategy for sustained growth. The papers trace the significant structural changes that had taken place in the 1970s and 1980s, and the structural adjustments of the 1980s. They draw out the major lessons and policy directions for the 1990s and beyond.

LEARNING TO WORK, WORKING TO LEARN
Edited by Patrick Pillai and Ridzwan Othman
1994 160pp RM15.00/US$7.50 ISBN967-947-198-5

Rapid industrialisation and a skills shortage have led to a heightened awareness of the need to reform the vocational and educational training (VET) system. A developing country bent on reform needs ideas. Some of the best ideas come from economically successful countries. Japan is one. Germany is another. Germany's highly successful dual VET system is a crucial factor behind its emergence as an international economic power. The German experience has shown that it is often a combination of classroom learning, and on-the-job training--in which trainees learn to work and work to learn--which produces the best results. This collection of papers examines aspects of vocational training in Germany and Malaysia.

THE JAPANESE STOCK MARKET An Outsider's Inside View
By Nigel Holloway
1994 14pp RM5.00/US$2.50 ISBN 967-947-183-7

The dramatic rise and fall of the Tokyo Stock Exchange (TSE) and the lessons to be drawn from the TSE experience are the focus of Mr Nigel Holloway's paper. Mr Holloway, Business Editor of the Far Eastern Economic Review, contends that the fall and rise of the TSE was exaggerated by some features that are unique to the TSE. Chief among them is the existence of corporate governance, which because of the intimate and interlocking nature of their stock cross shareholding set up, prevented the TSE shares from moving freely and inhibited any corrections to the TSE stock movement. Mr Holloway also expounds on the various measures, including restructuring the corporate cross shareholding practice, changes in merger and acquisition law and deregulation in the financial industry, that would make the TSE a better place to invest.

POPULATION DYNAMICS Its Social And Economic Impact And Policy Responses in Japan
By Makoto Atoh
1994 43pp RM8.00/US$4.00 ISBN967-947-182-9

With fertility failing below replacement rate, the demographic transition presents a serious challenge to Japan's future. Dr Atoh, Director of Department of Population Studies at the Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, traces the trend in population growth, the social and economic factors behind this trend and its implications, with particular emphasis on the 'aging population' of Japan. Dr Atoh explores the various policy measures designed to counter the population decline, focusses on improving the social and economic environment for child care and also deals with the issue of foreign immigration. This paper was delivered as a Centre for Japan Studies Lecture.

JAPAN'S URBAN TRANSPORTATION
By Michihiko Sato
1994 76pp RM8.00/US$4.00 ISBN967-947-189-6

How does Japan, whose land area is only slightly bigger than that of Malaysia and which has a population six-and-half times as large, cope with the problem of traffic jams? Mr Sato, who is with the Public Works Department in Osaka City, examines Japan's urban planning as well as its policy implementation system, particularly with regard to urban transportation. Among the issues covered are the improvement, in terms of convenience and efficiency, of the public transportation system, betterment of traffic control systems and traffic law, and reduction in pollution related to transportation (i.e. noise and air pollution) through various means such as the promotion of the electric car, the introduction of automobile emission reduction devices and the construction of buffer buildings near residential areas affected by traffic.

DIFFERENCE IN BUSINESS CULTURE BETWEEN JAPAN & AMERICA
Experiences Of A Japanese Businessman
By Haruyasu Ohsumi
1994 109pp RM10.00/US$5.00 ISBN967-947-194-2

Differences in the practice and culture between the business community of Japan and that of the United States, Mr Ohsumi believes, have 'greatly influenced their economic competitiveness.' Mr Ohsumi regards the daily activities of doing business by the businessmen as the fundamental of economy, thus, meaningful solution to economic friction will not be realised unless..... there (is a) focus on the differences in daily performances of businessmen.'

JAPAN'S ENERGY POLICY: MEANS AND MEANINGS
By Jun Arima
1994 27pp RM5.00/US$2.50 ISBN967-947-190-X

Japan is the world's largest energy consuming country and yet produces less than 20 per cent of it's own energy needs. Thus it is not surprising that ensuring a steady and reliable supply of energy sources is of paramount importance in Japan's energy policies. Mr Jun Arima, currently the Deputy Director of the International Policy Division of the Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, MITI (Japan) in this booklet version of his lecture, traced the energy policy process of Japan since WWII to the present. Mr Arima also revealed how events such as the soil shocks of '73 and '78 as well as new realities such as the environmental concerns and consideration for resources conservation had shaped Japan's energy policy.

NORTH KOREA'S NUCLEAR DEVELOPMENT AND JAPAN'S POSITION
By Masao Okonogi
1994 11pp RM5.00/US$2.50 ISBN967-947-195-0

Professor Okonogi, a Korean specialist at Keio University, examines the events surrounding North Korea's decision to pull out from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). He also touches on relevant issues such as the possible motives behind North Korea's desire to develop its nuclear capability and the effect of such moves particularly on North - South Korean relations, and more generally on North Korea's international relations.

JAPAN'S SECURITY POLICY IN THE POST-COLD WAR ERA - TOWARDS THE ENHANCEMENT OF ITS SECURITY ROLES
By Abdul Razak Abdullah Baginda
1994 117pp RM15.00/US$7.50 ISBN967-947-199-3

This study suggests that Japan should play a more positive security role in the Asia-Pacific region in the post-Cold War era. It also explains the historical background and components of Japan's defence policy. The author introduces various roles Japan could play -- economic, political, diplomatic and defence -- which are regarded as security roles in the context of 'comprehensive security'.

MEETING HOUSING NEEDS
Issues and Policy Directions
Edited by Kamariah Othman
1993 140pp RM12.00/US$6.00 ISBN967-947-168-3

The problems of meeting housing needs in Malaysia are not only caused by rapid population growth, but also by the country's prosperity and progress in the last two decades. Under the Fifth Malaysia Plan, the country was able to meet only 43 per cent of its house building target. This book is a collection of papers, prepared by experts in their respective fields, describing various dimensions of the problems, measures taken to overcome them, and the future prospects of meeting the ever-increasing housing needs. The views of the government, the building industry, the financial institutions, and the end-consumers are well represented in the chapters of this book.

ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT IN MALAYSIA
Changing Concerns and Approaches
By Sham Sani
1993 138pp RM20.00/US$10.00 ISBN967-947-167-5

This book is about Malaysia's efforts to achieve sustainable development. It reviews the consequences of development on the country's natural environment and draws attention to the development style that has been pursued so far, the degree of environmental degradation that has occurred, especially during the period after Independence in 1957, and the institutional measures taken by the government to resolve environmental issues and ensure sustainability. A review of the effectiveness of current management practices adopted by the Department of Environment and the government, and efforts undertaken by the international community in managing global environment are also included, with particular reference to how these relate to Malaysia.

JEPUN DAN ASIA TIMUR
(Japan and East Asia)
Terjemahan oleh Normala Soulie Mohamad dan Zahir lsmail
1993 86ms RM10.00/US$5.00 ISBN 967-947-179-9

Buku terbitan Pusat Kajian Jepun dan ISIS Malaysia ini mempunyai lapan rencana mengenai perhubungan ekonomi Jepun dengan negara-negara Asia Timur. Sungguhpun Jepun menganggap negaranya sebahagiaan daripada Asia, namun merasakan pertu berfikir-bertindak melampaui sempadan keserantauan dalam konteks yang global demi menjaga kepentingan ekonaminya. Tulisan-tulisan ini juga membincangkan peranan clan tanggungjawab baru Jepun untuk memutuskan bahawa rantau Asia Timur akan terus pesat. la juga memberi pandangan tentang periunya Jepun meninjau kembali dasar ODAnya, demi membantu membina sebuah tata ekonomi dunia baru yang lebih egalitarian.

HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT IN MALAYSIA
Japan's Contribution Since 1980
By Chilly Chew, Leong Choon Heng, Kazue Sugiyama and Stephen Leong
1993 202pp RM30.00/US$15.00 ISBN967-947-175-6

This study on Japan's contribution to human resource development in Malaysia followed the recommendation of the Japan-Malaysia Advisory Group of the Centre for Japan Studies at ISIS Malaysia. It began in April 1992, and focused on the education and training programmes offered by Japan to Malaysian students and trainees. The programmes were conducted in both Japan and Malaysia. The study involved a review of published writings on training and skills formation programmes, especially in Japan, and the collection of statistics and other information from various organisations such as the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), the Association for Overseas Technical Scholarship (AOTS), the Association of International Education, Japan, (AIEJ), the Japan Foundation and the Embassy of Japan. Malaysian agencies such as the Economic Planning Unit (EPU) and the Look East Policy Unit of the Public Services Department (PSD) were also contacted for important data and information. The core of the study, however, was a survey conducted by means of questionnaires given to a large number of participants of the training and education programmes.

NATIONAL UNITY: Key to the ultimate Malaysian society
By M. Ghazali Shafie
1993 11pp RM2.50/US$1.50 ISBN 967-947-166-7

The building of a nation out of diverse ethnic and religion groups is a monumental task, and would have to take time. While the author believes that a great deal still needs to be done to achieve lasting national unity in Malaysia, he is able to enumerate achievements of the part three decades. The essay also discusses policy options available for the future, in the context of Vision 2020 and Malaysia's place in a changing international and regional orders.

CONFIDENCE BUILDING AND CONFLICT REDUCTION IN THE PACIFIC
Edited by Rohana Mahmod and Rustam A Sani
1993 226pp RM28.00/US$14.00 ISBN 967-947-147-8

The book is a collection of articles - each one by an international expert on his or her subject - that discuss the major issues in matters of security and international relations of the economically dynamic Asia-Pacific region. After dealing with the security issues of the region in the context of the 'new world order', the book deals with the responses of the nations of the region to the new challenges and the ways that those nations relate to the big powers and the UN in the emerging global economic and political system of the post-cold war era.

CARING SOCIETY Emerging issues and future directions
Edited by Cho Kah Sin and Ismail Muhd Salleh
1992 591pp RM60.00/US$30.00 ISBN 967-947-145-4

This book, which comprises selected papers from the First National Conference on the Caring Society held from Dec 5-6, 1990, may be seen as a guide to a wide range of contemporary issues with the authors providing a 'state of the art' stock-taking of their area of expertise, a frontline view of their area of social welfare practice, a guide to the relevant literature and some pointers to the issues that require further exploration and more systematic investigation. The paper topics are organised into several broad themes which, it is hoped, will reflect an emerging policy agenda for social development.

SOUTHEAST ASIA The Way Forward
Edited by Rohana Mahmood and Thangam Ramnath
1992 139pp RM15.00/US$7.50 ISBN 967-947-162-4

This selection of papers from the Fourth Southeast Asia Forum held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, documents the domestic goals and aspirations of the countries in the region, the regional issues confronting them and also how the region meets the challenges of the post Cold-War world or the New World Order.

ENHANCING INTRA-INDUSTRY LINKAGES
The Role of Small and Medium Scale Industries
Edited by Ismail Muhd Salleh and Latifah Rahim
1992 140pp RM15.00/US$7.50 ISBN 967-947-163-2

This book contains selected papers from the 'Seminar on the Role of Small and Medium Scale Industries in Industrial Restructuring, held in Kuala Lumpur in 1991. Some of the topics discussed are:

  • The role of SMIs in economic development
  • Enhancing technological linkages through the ancillary and support industry
  • Sub-contracting arrangements
  • The 'umbrella' concept of marketing
  • Technological development through sub-contracting linkages
  • Supporting SMI growth through provision of credit facilities
  • Venture capital operations and their potential roles in developing SM1s
  • An assessment of SMI incentives and an assessment of the Industrial Technical Assistance Fund (ITAF) in upgrading SMIs are included

FACING 2020
The challenges to the plantation industry
Edited by K Ragupathy
1992 117pp RM20.00/US$10.00 ISBN 967-947-165-9

In pursuing strategies to enable the plantation sector to face the challenges in the year 2020, agricultural policy makers in Malaysia are motivated to search for more flexible production systems that can benefit from new opportunities created by changes in technology and market.
This collection of papers, written by various individuals who are experts and authorities in their own fields, focusses attention on the issues and problems facing the plantation sector. It is a useful reference for those working in the plantation industry, particularly for those seeking an answer to the future of the plantation industry in the year 2020. It also serves as a spring board to future research and implementation efforts.

SUSTAINING PACIFIC TRADE DYNAMISM
Exploring policy linkages
Edited by Steven C M Wong and Ahmad Ikram Haji Abdullah
1992 140pp RM22.00/US$11.00 ISBN 967-947-156-X

This is a collection of selected papers and related documents from the Fifth PECC Policy Forum, held in Kuala Lumpur. The aim of the Forum has always been to provide an opportunity for leading academicians, businessmen and government officials in the Pacific region to meet and discuss as well as help resolve issues with a view to enhancing international trade.

JAPAN IN TRANSITION
Economy, politics and society
Edited by Steven C M Wong and Kazue Sugiyama
1992 93pp RM27.00/US$13.50 ISBN 967-947-150-0

The pace and magnitude of political, economic and social developments which have taken place in Japan in recent years shows a nation in flux. This book contains the proceedings of the First Annual Conference on Japan held in Kuala Lumpur from December 10-11, 1991. The conference was an attempt to understand some of these recent developments, among them the country's assuming a larger role in international politics, the series of securities and financial scandals which have rocked the market, the change of administrations, and kokusaika or Japan's growing internationalisation.

SOUTHEAST ASIA AND REGIONAL PEACE
Edited by B A Hamzah
1992 139pp RM20.00/US$10.00 ISBN 967-947-149-7

The Southeast Asian concept of the zone of peace, freedom and neutrality (ZOPFAN) is an extension of Western intellectual thoughts on neutralisation. Since 1968, the idea was refined by some creative minds in Malaysia, working in the context of the cold war. The Asean Foreign Ministers saw the wisdom and relevance of the idea as a conception of regional security, and adopted it as the Kuala Lumpur Declaration of 1971. The collection of essays in this book deals with the question of whether the concept continues to have any relevance in the new strategic environment of the post-cold war era.

THE SOUTH PACIFIC NUCLEAR FREE ZONE
(The treaty of Rarotonga)
By Stuart McMillan
1992 13pp RM4.00/US$2.00 ISBN: 967-947-161-6

In this paper the author briefly outlines how The South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty, which was signed in 1985, came into being, the motives of the promoters and signatories, the contents of the treaty and some aspects of the negotiation. The argument advanced by the writer of this paper is that the world may be at a stage at which regional nuclear free zones have become more important as disarmament and arms control measures.

PEOPLE ON THE MOVE
An overview of recent immigration and emigration in Malaysia
By Patrick Pillai
1992 60pp RM7.00/US$3.50 ISBN 967-947-158-6

This paper is an attempt to provide a broad overview of immigration and emigration in Malaysia, utilising published secondary data. It describes the natures, contributory factors and consequences of cross-country labour mobility and its economic, social and political consequences.

THE POLITICS OF CONTROL AND DOMINANCE
Subjugating Iraq and Libya
By Chandra Muzaffar
1992 17pp RM4.00/US$2.00 ISBN 967-947-154-3

The current confrontational posture of Western powers towards Iraq and Libya is analysed in terms of the endeavour of Western powers, especially the US and its allies, to establish their hegemonic rule not only in West Asia but also in other parts of the world, in the context of an emerging 'unjust' international order.

THE SPRATLYS DISPUTES AND PROSPECTS FOR SETTLEMENT

By Ji Guoxing
1992 36pp RM5.00/US$2.50 ISBN 967-947-137-3

The Spratly Islands, the biggest of the four archipelagoes in the South China Sea are claimed either in part of or wholly, by five countries: Philippines, Malaysia, Vietnam, Taiwan and the People's Republic of China. The author of this paper traces the history of the islands from its discovery and administration by the Chinese, who maintain their sovereignty over the islands, intervention by foreign powers and finally to the present conflicting claims. He says that China is all for a peaceful 'common exploration and sharing of resources with the problem of sovereignty pushed aside for a certain period of time'.

THE CHANGING ASIA PACIFIC ENVIRONMENT
Quest for peace
By Abdul Ghafar Baba
1992 5pp KM2.50/US$1.50 ISBN 967-947-155-1

The booklet, based on the text of a speech bv the author at the Asia Pacific Roundtable in 1991, analyses the great changes taking place in the global strategic environment, with special emphasis on their relevance to the Asia Pacific region. The author proposes steps that could be taken to promote lasting peace and stability, both globally and regionally.

JAPAN'S ROLE IN THE WORLD
By Wendy Dobson
1992 9pp RM5.OO/US$2.50 ISBN 967-947-153-5

The ending of the Cold War with removal of the common security threat has bared economic tensions among the world's three major economies. Japan has emerged as an economic superpower, technology leader and capital supplier, but as yet lacks a widely-understood vision within which it will exercise its new clout. This lecture looks at Japan's recent record in meeting some of the numerous and complex challenges of managing in a rapidly-changing world economy, and at prospects for the future evolution of Japan's international economic role.

THE REALITIES AND MYTHS BEHIND JAPAN'S INDUSTRIAL JUGGERNAUT
By Kunio Yoshihara
1992 13pp RM5.OO/US$2.50 ISBN 967-947-152-7

The real driving force behind the Japanese economy has been the manufacturing industry, but the proposition that Japanese industry has developed because of the powerful MITI (Ministry of International Trade and Industry) is a myth, asserts the author. It is possible that because of MITI's intervention, economic restructuring went smoothly and Japan is benefitting from it today. But industrial policy is not the only factor for Japan's success argues the author. Several factors working in tandem are required.

THE TRENDS IN THE JAPANESE CONSUMER MARKET
By Katsuhiro Utada
1992 8pp RM5.OO/US$2.50 ISBN 967-947-151-9

The Japanese consumer market, which was worth US$1.7 trillion in 1989, is seeing a growing trend towards sophistication through upgrading or buying durable goods with increased functions. The author discusses sophisticated consumption from three angles: diversification, higher quality and service-oriented trends.

MALAYSIA: THE WAY FORWARD
Vision 2020
By Dato' Seri Dr Mahathir Mohamad
1991 23pp

The purpose of this paper is to present before you some thoughts on the future course of our nation and how we should go about to attain our objective of developing Malaysia into an industrialised country. Also outlined are some measures that should be in place in the shorter term so that the foundations can be laid for the long journey towards that ultimate objective.
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KONSEP FURUSATO
Ke arah Jepun yang manusiawi dan makmur
By Noboru Takeshita
Diterjemahkan oleh Firdaus Abdullah
1991 147 hal. RM16.00/US$8.00 (sc) RM24.00/US$12.00 (hc) ISBN 967-947-140-3

Dalam buku ini, bekas Perdana Menteri dan Menteri Kewangan Jepun menghuraikan pandangannya tentang kegunaan ciri-ciri budaya 'setempat' dari pelbagai daerah di Jepun sebagai asas bagi pertumbuhan negara Jepun moden yang lebih manisiawi sifatnya.

JASA: TOWARDS AN ECONOMICALLY RESILIENT SOUTHEAST ASIA
Proceedings of the Second Japan-Southeast Asia Conference
1991 302pp RM40.00/US$20.00 ISBN 967-947-123-3

This publication consists of papers presented by participants from the government, academic and private sectors of the Southeast Asian countries, and Japan, who were invited by the conference organisers to explore the concept of 'economic resilience' in the context of their countries' economies. The book is divided into three sections; the first section discusses the global and regional dimensions; the second, the national dimension; and the third, the Japan dimension.

THE VALUE ADDED TAX IN MALAYSIA
The rationale, design and issues
By Suresh Narayanan
1991 117pp RM25.00/US$12.50 ISBN 967-947-142-X

The Value Added Tax has been described as the 'most important tax innovation of the second half of the 20th century'. In this book, the author, an Associate Professor at the School of Social Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, discusses, within the Malaysian context, the operation, desirability and applicability of the VAT in its widely-used form.

THE GROWTH OF THE PUBLIC SECTOR IN MALAYSIA
By Ismail Muhd Salleh and H Osman Rani
1991 130pp RM32.00/US$16.00 ISBN 967-947-127-6

This book is an outgrowth of intensified scrutiny in recent years of the role of the government in Malaysia's economic development. It discusses the causes and consequences of public sector growth in the economy during the last three decades, and future prospects. It also looks at privatisation as an option.

ENHANCING MALAYSIA'S EXPORT CAPABILITIES
Edited by Tan Siew Hoey
1991 235pp RM37.00/US$18.50 ISBN 967-947-130-6

For Malaysia, which is a small open economy, exports have always been the prime engine of growth. At the National Seminar on Enhancing Malaysia's Export Capabilities held in Kuala Lumpur from August 7-8 1990, the issue of how to further strengthen and promote Malaysian exports was discussed against the backdrop of developing manufacturing and resource-based industries.

MALAYSIA AND THE LAW OF THE SEA
The foreign policy issues, the options, and their implications
By Mark J Valencia
1991 155pp RM40.00/US$20.00 ISBN 967-947-124-1

The Law of the Sea Convention was signed by 119 countries, including Malaysia, on December 10, 1982 after some fifteen years of difficult and very complicated negotiations. This book provides a summary of the Malaysian foreign policy issues created or exacerbated by extended maritime jurisdiction and the Convention, and examines for Malaysia the policy options regarding these issues, as well as their implications.

US-MALAYSIA NEXUS
Themes in superpower-small-state relations
By Pamela Sodhy
1991 570pp RM90.00/US$45.00 (sc) ISBN 967-947-133-0
RM105.00/US$55.00 (hc) ISBN 967-947-131-4

This book traces the US~Malaysian relationship from the early contacts in the 17th century through to 1990. Important phases of the relationship - the early years until 1945; the postwar period, 1946-49; the Korean War period, 1950~53; the immediate pre and post-independence years, 1954-63; the Confrontation years, 1963-66; post-Confrontation to the end of the Vietnam War, 1967-75; the Carter and Hussein Onn administrations, 1976-80; and the Reagan-Bush and Mahathir administrations, 1981-90 -- are examined through a prism of themes that includes:

  • The regional approach of US foreign policy, and the US perception of Malaysia as being under the British sphere of influence (until 1971), and their effects on the relationship
  • The economic/commercial dimension of the relationship
  • The ties at the political and military levels
  • The educational and sociocultural dimensions; and
  • The fledgling legal dimension.

QUEST FOR SECURITY
Proceedings of the Fourth Asia-Pacific Roundtable
Edited by Jawhar Hassan and Rohana Mahmood
1991 135pp RM28.00/US$14.00 (sc) ISBN 967-947-135-7
RM36.00/US$18.00 (hc) ISBN 967-947-134-9

This fourth publication in the series of books resulting from the Asia-Pacific Roundtables discusses:

  • Great power relations in the Pacific: Future directions
  • Arms reduction and control in the Pacific
  • Issues for negotiations in a comprehensive Cambodian settlement
  • Obstacles to peace in the Korean peninsula

For the first time, five simultaneous seminars were held to discuss developments in Northeast Asia, the South Pacific, the Philippines, Vietnam and Eastern Europe. This volume contains 10 selected papers and three workshop reports on arms control, the Korean conflict, and the Cambodian conflict.

MYANMAR AND THE WIDER SOUTHEAST ASIA
Edited by Rohana Mahmood and Hans-Joachim Esders
1991 63pp RM18.00/US$9.00 ISBN 967-947-126-8

This book is the outcome of a two-day international seminar held in Kuala Lumpur in July 1990 which brought together 31 participants from Asean, Myanmar and outside the region to discuss the subject of Myanmar, within the context of Southeast Asia. The discussions covered the domestic challenges facing the country in the nineties, the external dimensions of Myanmar's situation, and also compared Myanmar's reforms with those of Indonesia, when the Suharto government took over.

WHY JAPAN'S INDUSTRIES SHOULD SAY 'YES' TO THE EAEG
By Zainal Abidin Sulong
1991 8pp RM2.50/US$1.50 ISBN 967-947-136-5

The title is self-explanatory. The Malaysian proposal for an East Asian Economic Grouping (EAEG) was not met with enthusiasm bv Japan. The author who is chairman of ISIS Malaysia and the Malaysian Industrial Development Authority (MIDA), presents his case on why it would be to Japan's advantage to be in this grouping. This paper was presented at the 14th Joint Annual Conference of Jameca-Majeca in Kyoto, Japan on June 6, 1991.

ECONOMIC LIBERALISATION IN POLAND
By Jerzy Diet
1991 12pp RM2.50/US$1.50 ISBN 967-947-128-4

This paper looks at the transition from a state-run economy to a market-type economy in Poland. It also analyses the measures being taken towards economic liberalisation and examines the problems involved. The author, a member of the Polish Senate and Professor of marketing at the University of Lodz, also highlights the governments dilemma - that the move to a liberal market economy paradoxically calls for strong state intervention, albeit of a temporary nature.

THE POLITICS OF JAPAN-VIETNAM RELATIONS
By Khong Kim Hoong
1991 30pp RM5.50/US$3.00 ISBN 967-947-129-2

Nixon's announcement of US rapprochement with China in 1971 set in motion the wheels of change in Japan's foreign policy in Asia. This paper looks at the dominant factors and significant events in Japanese foreign policy regarding Vietnam in the context of the security situation in the region. The author also examines the use of economic aid as a lever in Japan-Vietnam relations.

LIVESTOCK POLICY AND PRODUCTION IN MALAYSIA
By Tan Siew Hoey
1991 26pp RM5.00/US$2.50 ISBN 967-947-125-X

This paper looks at the livestock sector in Malaysia, where the performance of the non-ruminant sector far outstrips that of the ruminant sector. The author, a senior analyst at the ISIS Malaysia analyses the trends in the remarkable performance of the pig and poultry subsector and the struggling performance of the cattle and the sheep subsector, and then examines the reasons for this disparity, The analysis done against the backdrop of policy intervention in the livestock sector, also highlights current issues related to livestock production.

JAPAN'S STRATEGIES FOR AND FUTURE COMMITMENT TO THE CHANGING WORLD
By Saburo Okita
1991 13pp RM4.50/US$2.50 ISBN 967-947-138-1

Dr Saburo Okita, former Foreign Minister of Japan, outlines three elements of the economic relationship between Japan and the Asia Pacific countries -- trade, investment and official development assistance (ODA). He elaborates on the philosophies behind ODA and gives a rounded view of what Japan would do to ensure sustainable development in the Asia Pacific region.

TOWARDS A NEW PACIFIC ORDER
Proceedings of the Fifth Asia-Pacific Roundtable
Edited by Jawhar Hassan and Rohana Mahmod
1991 182pp RM28.00/US$14.00 (sc) 967-947-147-0
RM38.00/US$19.00 (hc) ISBN 967-947-144-6

The shifting sands of global events was the backdrop against which about 200 participants from all over the Pacific met, for the fifth time, to discuss confidence building and conflict reduction in the region. The issues discussed were broadly:

  • The positive and negatives factors impinging on peace in the Pacific in the short and medium term
  • Proposals for confidence building and conflict reduction mechanisms for the Pacific
  • Arms control and arms limitations in the Pacific
  • The future of the Cambodian conflict; and
  • The future of the Korean conflict

JASA: A NEW ERA OF CO-OPERATION
Proceedings of the First Japan-Southeast Asia Conference
1990 95pp RM14.00/US$7.00 ISBN 967-947-123-3

Organised by the ISIS Malaysia, with assistance from the Sasakawa Peace Foundation of Japan, the inaugural Japan-Southeast Asia (JASA) Conference held from November 24-27, 1989 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, was a landmark event in the evolving relationship between Japan and the countries of Southeast Asia. For the first time ever, representatives of all 10 countries of what is geographically referred to as Southeast Asia, sat down with their Japanese counterparts to discuss issues of common concern. The conference's tone was positive and future~oriented. This volume comprises four papers, four summary reports, and the Keynote Address by former ISIS Chairman the late Tun Hussein Onn.

REGIONAL SECURITY:
How to advance US-Malaysia interests
By Mohd Jawhar Hassan
1990 6pp RM2.50/$1.50 ISBN 967-947-113-6

This is the text of a luncheon talk delivered at the Fourth Malaysia-US Colloquium held in Washington, in May 1990. The author first touches briefly on what the strategic picture in Southeast Asia is likely to be in the near future and then goes on to examine the areas he thinks should be focussed on in:

  • Advancing shared US-.Malaysia interests
  • The China factor
  • Strengthening Asean's security capabilities
  • The Cambodian conflict
  • Developing a larger regional framework for co-operation US and Soviet presence in the region
  • The economic dimension

PRIVATISATION
The process so far
Ismail Muhd Salleh and Lee Tin Hui
1990 15pp RM5.00/US$2.50 ISBN 967-947-137-3

Privatisation was officially initiated in Malaysia in 1983. In this paper the authors examine privatisation in the 1980s, its implementation mechanism and process, major efforts in privatisation and the approaches adopted, as well as the positive and negative effects of privatisation on the Malaysian economy. The Malaysian privatisation Masterplan which has been drawn up and is awaiting Cabinet approval is also discussed.

SMALL AND MEDIUM SCALE INDUSTRIALISATION: PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS
By Ismail Md Salleh
1990 28pp RM5.50/US$3.00 ISBN 967-947-121-7

In the current attempt to accelerate the growth of the modern industrialised sector, greater emphasis is being placed on the development of SMIs. This paper examines the structure of Malaysian small and medium scale industries and their relative significance in the economy, compares the contribution of Malaysian SMIs with those in the Philippines, South Korea and Japan, and discusses the roles SMIs could play in the development of the economy in terms of employment creation, savings mobilisation, income distribution and fostering linkages between SMIs and large scale industries.

SINGAPORE-INDONESIA DEFENCE CO-OPERATION
A case study of defence bilateralism within Asean
By Bilveer Singh
1990 19pp KM4.50/US$2.50 ISBN 967-947-132-2

Asean as a regional grouping has not had an impressive record in military co-operation and integration. This however, has not prevented member-states from co-operating bilaterally and even multilaterally in many areas, including military matters, outside the purview and framework of Asean. This paper examines the level of such a military co-operation between Singapore and Indonesia, and its future prospects. The reasons for the unviability of a military pact in the region are also detailed. Bilveer Singh is Director of the Singapore Institute of International Affairs and lecturer in the Department of Political Science in the National University of Singapore.

SINGAPORE'S GROWTH PROSPECTS TO THE MID-1990S
By Hank Lim
1990 19pp RM4.00/US$2.00 ISBN 967-947-100-4

In 1990 Singapore's economy was enjoying a growth rate of between 8.5 and 9 per cent surpassing government expectations in early 1989 of a 6-7 per cent growth. The writer, a senior lecturer in the Economics and Statistics Department of the National University of Singapore, gives some indications of what Singapore will be like, economically, in the 1990s and beyond. Among other things he examines Singapore's changing economic structure, and the economic policy parameters employed by the government for it to achieve its longterm goal of achieving industrial economy status by the year 2000. Present and expected sources of economic growth are discussed and also its composition. External demand for Singapore's exports are examined against the background of Asean's political and economic environments and the rapidly-growing economies of the Asia-Pacific region.

THE SOVIET UNION, EASTERN EUROPE AND WESTERN RESPONSES
By Curt Gasteyger
1990 11pp RM3.00/US$1.50 ISBN 967-947-108-X

Changes in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe have been rapid and far-reaching. Historical developments have led to a new post-war configuration that few could predict as possible. This paper was delivered at a time of such exciting changes when the horizon was cluttered with a whole range of possibilities. It discusses the ups and downs of western reactions to what is happening in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe and weighs them against the more fundamental and historical causes and effects.

ASEAN AND INDOCHINA:
War or peace?
1990 15pp RM5.501US$3.00 ISBN 967-947-107-1

Four panelists, Professor Mochtar Kusumaatmadja, Foreign Minister of Indonesia from 1978 to 1988, Dr Bilveer Singh, a political science lecturer at the National University of Singapore, His Excellency Kithong Vongsay, Deputy Minister of Trade and Foreign Economic Relations of Laos, and Mr Son Soubert, son of and assistant to the Prime Minister of the Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea, Mr Son Sann, presented highly divergent points of view in an issue that remains an obstacle and a roadblock to relations between the Asean Six and the three Indochinese countries. Among the many questions that arose at this forum were:

  • Was the Vietnamese withdrawal from Cambodia genuine?
  • Is the Khmer Rouge the impediment to a settlement?
  • How does the legitimacy or otherwise of the Hun Sen regime figure in this whole scenario?
  • Is a quadripartite government feasible?
  • Is Asean solidarity threatened by Thailand's actions?

ASIA-PACIFIC CO-OPERATION:
Where do we go from here?
1990 14pp RM5.50/US$3.00 ISBN 967-947-106-3

There is some dispute about how the vast potential of the growing Pacific economy can be harnessed for its greater growth both intra-regionally as well as in its relationship with the outside world. The panelists are, ISIS Director-General Dr Noordin Sopiee, Indonesia's former Foreign Minister Professor Mochtar Kusumaatmadja, Japan's Sasakawa Peace Foundation Programme Director, Dr Kazuo Takahashi, and former Philippines Minister/Secretary of Socio-Economic Planning, Assoc Prof Dr Solita Monsod. The forum was chaired by Commerce International Merchant Bankers Bhd Executive Director Dr Munir Majid. The following issues were raised:

  • Is there a need to strengthen the Asean Secretariat and to establish a think-tank
  • Should Asean participate in APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Co-operation)
  • The possibility of instituting JASEAN (a Japan-Asean annual ministerial meeting)

THE WORLD IN THE 1990s:
Growth or stagnation?
1990 17pp RM5.50/US$3.00 ISBN 967-947-103-9

What will the world economy be like in the 1990s? This was the question posed by ISIS Director-General Dr Noordin Sopiee to a panel of three renowned economists from different parts of the Pacific. They were Professor Hugh Patrick of Columbia University, New York, Dr Hadi Soesastro, Executive Director of the Jakarta Centre for Strategic and International Studies, and Professor Ippei Yamazawa of Japan's Hitotsubashi University. The panelists were unanimous in their optimistic forecasts on the world economy. Besides delving into the reasons for their optimism, the panelists discussed Japan's and the US' roles in the world economy, possible political and economic repercussions of the Eastern European upheaval, Third World debt, new growth centres, and Asia-Pacific economic co-operation.

THE CHALLENGE OF INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT
1990 13pp RM5.50/US$3.00 ISBN 967-947-101-2

Three experts who are in the business of planning industrial technology development give valuable advice on the topic in this ISIS-RTM Forum chaired by ISIS Director-General Dr Noordin Sopiee. Datuk Dr Omar Abdul Rahman, the Science Advisor to the Prime Minister's Department discusses the Malaysian perspective, Dr Hyung Sup Choi who master-minded South Korea's technology development in his capacity as Minister of Science and Technology during those crucial years, told his miracle story, while the third panelist, Dr Nawaz Sharif, who up to a few months ago was director of the Asian and Pacific Centre for Technology Transfer, rounded up the discussion with observations resulting from years of experience. Discussions delved into the overall strategies to keep in mind when planning industrial technology development.

THE QUESTION OF PALESTINE: Where do we go from here?
1990 17pp RM5.50/US$3.00 ISBN 967-947-102-0

Four outstanding panelists drawn from participants of the 23rd United Nations Seminar and Third Asian NonGovernmental Symposium on the Question of Palestine held in Kuala Lumpur from 18-22 December 1989, debated this issue. They were Datuk Razali Ismail, Permanent representative of Malaysia to the United Nations, Dr Hanan Mikhail Ashrawi, of Birzeit University, Paul Findley, Former US Congressman (Republican) and Mr Zuhdi Labib Terzi, Permanent Representative of the PLO to the United Nations. Subjects brought up were intifadah, and its impact in hitherto unsympathetic areas, such as Western Europe, and how more pressure is being brought to bear on Israel. Mr Findley maintained that the real battle to be fought and won was that in the United States, between the American people and the powerful Israeli lobby in the US that was ensuring unconditional US monetary and military support for the Israelis.

SOVIET UNION IN SINGAPORE'S FOREIGN POLICY:
An analysis
By Bilveer Singh
1990 219pp RM24.00/US$12.00 ISBN 967-947-105~5

This book explains Singapore's foreign policy behaviour towards the Soviet Union in the classic small state-big power configuration. The analysis, from the Singapore point of view, begins with the overview of Singapore-Soviet relations, placing the study in the context of foreign policy behaviour of small states. It also examines:

  • The factors which shape Singapore's foreign policy towards the Soviet Union
  • The nature of Singapore-Soviet relations
  • The course of relations between the two countries from 1965-1985; and
  • The relationship since Mikhail Gorbachev became the general-secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

PEACE IN THE MAKING
Proceedings of the Third Asia-Pacific Roundtable
Edited by Rohana Mahmood
1990 108pp RM20.00/US$10.00 (sc) RM30.00/US$15.00 ISBN 967-947-109-8
RM30.00/US$15.00 (hc) ISBN 967-947-110-1

This volume comprises eight papers and the keynote address together with the reports of two workshops, of the Third Asia Pacific Roundtable held in Kuala Lumpur from July 16-19, 1989. The consensus of the participants was that peace was on the march, not only in the Pacific but globally.{jgototop}{/jgototop}